I am preparing a presentation for a talk I am giving next week and I have a slide I always use at the beginning that asks this question:
How do we get information from the computer into our heads?
This works as a motivation to introduce the idea that regardless the data crunching power we are going to produce in the future the real bottleneck, in many applications, will always be the human mind. Getting information across from what our computers accumulate and generate to our heads and being able to understand it is the real challenge. Visualization is the tool we use to deal with this problem. By using effective visual representations of data we tap into the power of the human brain with all its incredible powers we have not been able yet to reproduce and synthesize in a machine (I let the discussion of whether this is possible or even desirable to others).
When I present this slide I normally quote the great Fred Brooks’ The Computer Scientist as Toolsmith and add this image from the paper:
But today for the first time I realized that when we talk about visualization we always talk about it as a one way channel, from the computer (or other media) to the human, when in fact there is a lot of knowledge flowing from the human to the machine.
When we use an interactive visualization tool we decide which data segments we want to attend to (think how Tableau works). This is derived from our knowledge and questions which we implicitly use to make choices about what to visualize next and how. When we use dynamic queries we use our knowledge to tell the computer that we are interested in a specific segment of the data and that we want to see it now.
There is a simple but effective function in Tableau that I love and is a good example of what I am trying to say here: the “exclude” function, which allows you to remove a data item from the visualization completely because not interesting or just annoying. When we do that, we are transferring our specific knowledge to the computer to tell it that we don’t need to see that data point anymore.
All in all it seems to boil down to interaction and how it is the only way to translate our intentions into instructions our computers can interpret. I think that what I really want to say is that we tend to forget how powerful this channel is and how limited it is to think about visualization exclusively as a 1-way communication tool. Sure, we can keep considering visualization this way but I think it’s much more exciting to think about it as a “visual thinking tool” where information flows in both directions.
And I think there is even more than that. While interaction in visualization is currently limited to giving instructions about what to see next, nothing prevents interaction to be used as a tool to transfer pieces of human knowledge directly to the computer. Classic examples where this has been attempted in the area of machine learning and related fields are relevance feedback mechanisms and active learning. Both technique rest on the idea of asking a human how to judge a decision made by the computer and use the result as a way to improve the computation. This is only one example but I think there are many unexplored ways to input our knowledge back into the computer to make it smarter and I think visualization should play a much larger role there.
That’s all for now. Thoughts?